UPDATE (March 26 2024)

Subsequent work has identified a different, and more expansive, set of criteria under which the Apple DMP activates. This new DMP model allows for significantly more concerning attacks.

You can find new information about the Apple DMP at gofetch

Old content below

We present a new type of microarchitectural attack that leaks data at rest: data that is never read into the core architecturally. This attack technique, Augury, leverages a novel microarchitectural optimization present in Apple Silicon: a Data Memory-Dependent Prefetcher (DMP).

At a high level:

  • We found that Apple processors have a DMP
  • We found that this DMP prefetches an array-of-pointers dereferencing pattern
  • We found that you can use this prefetcher to leak data (pointers) that are never read by any instruction, even speculatively!

No logo, but please do use our fun name!

Who found this?

We had a big team across UIUC, UW, and Tel Aviv University.

Co-first authors:


What processors are affected?

Only Apple silicon processors are affected. We have confirmed the existence of the DMP on the A14, M1, and M1 Max. We believe some older A-series processors and the newest M1-family (M1 Pro, etc.) chips are also affected but have only confirmed this on the M1 Max.

We have tested several recent families of Intel and AMD processors and seen no evidence they are affected.

How bad is this?

Right now not that bad! We have not demonstrated any end-to-end exploits with Augury techniques at this time. Currently, only pointers can be leaked, and likely only in the sandbox threat model.

If you are counting on ASLR in a sandbox, I’d be worried. Otherwise, be worried when the next round of attacks using Augury come out :)

What exactly is a DMP?

A Data Memory-Dependent Prefetcher (DMP) is a prefetcher that takes into account the content of memory when deciding what to prefetch. A conceptually simple (if tricky to implement) DMP is one that watches the stream of cache lines returned from the memory system, and attempts a prefetch on any 64-bit chunk that appears to form (or help in the formation of) a pointer.

What DMP structure did you find?

In Apple Silicon we found an Array-of-Pointers (AoP) DMP. This prefetcher looks for access patterns of the following form:

for( i=0; i<len(arr); i++ ){

Once it has seen *arr[0]*arr[2] occur (even speculatively!) it will begin prefetching *arr[3] onward. That is, it will first prefetch ahead the contents of arr and then dereference those contents. In contrast, a conventional prefetcher would not perform the second step/dereference operation.

What makes Augury different from Spectre/MDS/etc?

Augury techniques leverage only the DMP, not transient execution. In fact, speculative execution could be completely disabled and Augury would still work.

A more subtle, but important point, is that the types of defenses that apply to Augury are not the same as other microarchitectural attacks. Any defense that relies on tracking what data is accessed by the core (speculatively or non-speculatively) cannot protect against Augury, as the leaked data is never read by the core!

Some Spectre defenses (notably defenses like Site Isolation) also apply to Augury attacks since they have a similar effective reach. Other defenses like Speculative Load Hardening are not applicable and will not prevent Augury for leaking data.

What is a “data at rest” attack?

Data at rest microarchitectural leakage is a type of attack where the targeted data is never read into the core speculatively or non-speculatively, and yet is leaked. The likely existence of these attacks is described in Pandora and Safecracker, but we had not found any examples in the wild.

These attacks are problematic because most defensive approaches in hardware or software for other microarchitectural attacks assume there is some instruction that accesses the secret. They can then either stop this access from occurring, or prevent the transmission of the secret. Data at rest attacks do not have this property, and must be mitigated differently.

How did you find this?

We had been looking for DMP implementations in the wild for some time, and previously discussed the dangers they present in Pandora.

We began looking at the M1 and A14 after reading this Anandtech article including the quote:

In our microarchitectural investigations we’ve seen signs of “memory magic” on Apple’s designs, where we might believe they’re using some sort of pointer-chase prefetching mechanism.”

Why “Augury”?

“the work of an augur; the interpretation of omens.”

Augury is a neat word to say.

More seriously, it well describes the process of leaking information using a DMP. We are, in fact, interpreting the ‘signs of the future’ that the DMP has left in microarchitectural state for us. It turns out that those futures weren’t going to happen, but we still learn something from them!

Plus, no one had taken it :)

Is Apple patching anything?

As far as we know, no. We have discussed this issue with Apple and they are aware of all details.

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